The star at the core of this nebula is the "Flaming Star", AE Aurigae, in the constellation Auriga (The Charioteer), and all the surrounding dust and clouds of hydrogen is called the Flaming Star Nebula (IC 405). This emission nebula is around 1500 lightyears away and it's fairly large, about 5 lightyears across (roughly 47 trillion kilometers or 30 trillion miles across).
What's interesting is that even though AE Auriga is lighting up the nebula, it was not formed there, but rather is a "runaway star" that was probably ejected several million years ago from the star formation furnace in the core of the Orion Nebula. The star is moving quickly through the nebula, producing a violent bow shock with a wave of high energy electromagnetic radiation.
Frames: 23 x 300 seconds of Ha, 5 x 300 seconds of OIII (I was not picking up oxygen at all!), and 20 x 360 seconds of SII. Equipment: William Optics GT81 APO refractor, ZWO ASI1600MM-Pro monochrome camera (unity gain 139/21), Astronomik filters, iOptron CEM25P mount, INDI/Ekos/KStars running in Stellarmate/Raspberry Pi 3b+.
I've had the Orion Atlas EQ-G, William Optics GT81, and ZWO ASI071MC camera set up for the last three days. It's been cold--down around -10C in the early morning hours. With a new moon that's slowly waxing, but still mostly absent from the night sky, I've been using the color camera to capture some amazing targets, including this three panel mosaic of the Orion Nebula (M42), Running Man Nebula, Horsehead Nebula (Barnard 33), Flame Nebula (NGC 2024), and the three giant stars in Orion's Belt, Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka. This is why the Orion Constellation is arguably the sky's most impressive constellation. NOTES: 31 x 300 second exposures for each, with an additional set of 10 and 30 second exposures for the Trapezium in M42--that really bright triangular region. There's just so much fiery star forming action at the heart of the Orion Nebula that any exposure over a dozen seconds is going to blow out the whole area.
Here's my setup for the last few nights:
Orion at the southern Meridian:
According to several weather sources it's not going to be clear after 8pm tonight, but I set up the William Optics GT81 anyway. Two reasons: I need to test out an adjustment I made in the spacing from the WO FLAT 6AII, to see if it corrects some star elongation at the corners--I added a 3mm M48 spacer just between the flattener/reducer and the off-axis guider. Second, I'm testing out some plans I have with Stellarmate (INDI, Ekos, KStars) on a Rasp Pi 3B+ (faster, with AC wifi). This one will be dedicated to this color imaging rig, with an auto-starting Ekos equipment profile.
I put together a list of modifications and upgrades I have added or built for my IOptron CEM25P mount, and included them in one handy image--with arrows and descriptions (see below). Over the last year this has become my primary telescope mount (over my Orion Atlas EQ-G), partly because I've been doing most of my astro-imaging work with 81 and 61mm aperture refractors (that's a William Optics GT81 in the upper right). The other advantage of the CEM25P is quick setup time. I can have this bolted to the pier plate, polar aligned, and ready to image in about five minutes.
Here's my working color imaging train with the William Optics GT81 APO. The leftmost component is the William Optics FLAT 6AII field flattener/reducer which brings the focal length of the GT81 to 382mm at f/4.7. Pretty fast. The problem, of course, with reducers and flatteners is nailing that 55mm T2 distance to the camera sensor. That means the off-axis guider has to be thin (Orion Thin OAG) and the inline filter drawer does as well. The last piece of the puzzle, or bit of trouble you have to deal with is focusing the off-axis guide camera, matching the guide camera sensor distance to the primary camera sensor distance. And I finally had a bit of clear sky at night--bright moon however--to dial this in.
I added the filter drawer to be able to support UHC and other filters with the ZWO ASI071MC color camera. I don't plan on running with a filter most of the time, but some targets call for a bit more contrast.
There were several high-quality 60mm apochromatic refractors that entered the market last year. They were pitched as portable wide-field scopes, and also marketed here in the US for the solar eclipse last summer. Starting around $450 USD, these little refractors, like the William Optics ZenithStar 61 sold out quickly. I didn’t get a chance to purchase one until May of this year.
The ZS61 has a 360mm focal length at f/5.9, synthetic fluorite objective lens--FPL-53, which has some amazing optical properties. It’s a great scope, with a solid focuser. But there’s an easy modification that will make it even better. I found one thing when I added the imaging train--here’s my narrowband setup, with an Atik414EX monochrome CCD, a ZWO filter wheel with 5 filters, hydrogen-alpha, oxygen3, sulfur2, clear, and a near IR 685nm longpass. With the field flattener this ends up around 3.2 pounds or 1.45kg. These scopes--I keep saying these scopes because there are several varieties of the same basic components, a few of them with the same focuser, focal length, and aperture, differing--as far as I can tell--only with the hardware, knobs, lens caps.
Anyway, the first thing you probably want to do with these is strengthen the scope’s connection to the dovetail bar. The stock version comes with this clamshell ring and shoe, and if you’re going to do anything other than some light visual astronomy, you will want to backup the stock ring with another. I found that when I added the camera, filter wheel, and guider, the whole system had a slight flex to it if I lifted or pushed down with the camera. At first I thought it was the focuser and was a bit bummed about that, but then I noticed it was the whole scope moving, and it all relied on this rather slender ring and shoe. The focuser itself is very smooth and very solid. It’s a dual-speed rack-and-pinion type, and so you may want to adjust some of the tension screws depending on the load you’re planning to add--a DSLR or more, but out of the box, this focuser along with FPL-53 glass makes this scope worth considering for your wider-field work.
To remove that flexure in the system, I bought a ZWO 78mm Holder Ring for ASI Cooled Cameras to see if it would work. The tube’s diameter is around 76mm, and with a delrin shim or something similar, the 78mm inside diameter of the ZWO ring worked almost perfectly. The one gap--literally--was with the two shoes of each ring. The stock William Optics one is ¼” (6.35mm) taller than the ZWO ring. Easy solution: I went to my favorite aluminum supplier (you have one, right? See the links below) and bought a set of stock aluminum pieces, 2” x 3” x ¼”, then drilled, and stacked it with the dual ring setup. Now the whole system is perfectly rigid with two strong foundations.
The other advantage of going with the ZWO holder ring are the risers with the threaded holes on the top and bottom. I added one of these SmallRig cheese grater mounting plates on the top--you should always have one or two of these on hand for bolting things together. They’re tough, anodized aluminum, and full of threaded holes of varying sizes. I use these on the ZS61 and my William Optics GT81 to connect the control hardware and power--usually a Raspberry Pi3b and 12v battery pack. What’s nice is I can use a couple hexcap screws to quickly add or remove all devices from one scope to the other.
So, there you have it. An easy way to build more rigidity into a nearly perfect portable wide-field setup. Let me know if you have questions, or a better way to accomplish this. I added some links below for the components I used.
For aluminum: Stoners Tools and Raw Materials
Ebay listing for the 2” x 3” x ¼” aluminum bar stock:
I recently bought the William Optics FLAT 6A II, and finally made it out under the stars to take some sub-exposures. I paired it with my GT-81 and ZWO ASI071MC color CMOS camera. The FLAT 6A II is a 0.8x reducer/field flattener; it's adjustable for different focal lengths, and so far, with my limited use, it appears to be quite a leap over the old William Optics F6-A I've used for a few years. The ASI071 has an APS-C sized sensor, and anyone with a large sensor astro camera or DSLR knows if you don't want field curvature with your refractor you need some sort of flattener. The FLAT6AII design makes it easy to dial in the correct distance for the scope you're using. The old reducer/flattener worked, but I had to test out a dozen different flattener to sensor distances, and still had to do some cropping and processing to fix the corners. This new FLAT 6AII provides a fairly flat field across the entire view. Equipment: William Optics GT-81 + FLAT 6A II 0.8x reducer f/4.7, ZWO ASI071MC-Cool color CMOS camera - gain 0 offset 8, ZWO ASI120MM-S Guide Cam + 130mm guide scope.
With the GT81 and ASI071 I get a 3.54° x 2.35° field of view, and I can capture some big chunks of the night sky. Here are three from the last two nights:  the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070) and the edge of the North America Nebula (NGC7000) at the bottom,  IC 1396 nebula with the Elephant's Trunk at the top and the Garnet Star bottom left, and  M31, our galactic neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy.
Pelican Nebula image info: ZWOASI071MC 39 x 240 second color subs stacked in DSS, processed in PSCC2018
IC 1396 region image info: ZWOASI071MC 21 x 300 second color subs stacked in DSS, processed in PSCC2018
The Andromeda Galaxy. The last time I photographed Andromeda (M31) was 2015, maybe fall of 2014? It's been a while. I was using a DSLR--that was the only camera I had, and I had it on a terribly-used Celestron CG-5 equatorial mount with some aftermarket RA/DEC motors. By "terribly-used" I mean you could drive a truck through the gear backlash. Even so, I still managed to get some decent 30-second exposures of Andromeda, Orion Nebula, and other big bright targets in the sky. Well, I'm back with our galactic neighbor, and with much better gear: 192 x 120-second sub-exposures stacked in DSS, processed in PSCC2018, ZWO ASI071MC camera at -10C, William Optics GT81 APO, iOptron CEM25P EQ mount.
How about a little Voldemort with your Astronomy? Here's Barnard 104, the Fish Hook Nebula (backward checkmark nebula was already taken?), just left of the star beta Scuti in the constellation Scutum--along with several other absorption nebulae in the Barnard Catalogue, 113, 111, 110, 107, and B106. (See the image below). These are the dark cloudy regions across the middle, which stand out against the glow of a billion stars in this area of the Milky Way Galaxy. (Okay, I'm being a bit deceptive with the drama there. It's probably more like 5 or 10 billion). Oh, and let's not forget NGC 6704, the open star cluster toward the bottom in the center. A note on the "Barnard Catalogue", which is what I've always called it: I just found out the official name for it is the very Harry Potter sounding, Barnard Catalogue of Dark Markings in the Sky. Go home, Death Eaters! The star gazing geeks got here first! (ZWO ASI071MC cooled CMOS camera at -10°C, iOptron CEM25P EQ mount, William Optics ZenithStar 61 f/5.9, 12 x 120 sec. sub exposures, stacked in DSS. Location: Stratham, New Hampshire, US. Bortle 4).
So, all in all, a successful night of astronomy stuff, even with the clouds rolling in around 2 am. Here are a couple more wide-field shots from the session, the Eagle Nebula and the Sadr Region--the diffuse nebula (IC 1318) around gamma Cygni, also called Sadr (center star in the constellation Cygnus).
I spent a few hours last night dialing in the Orion "TOAG" or Thin Off-Axis Guider, which I bought a couple years ago, but have never been able to get working properly. I've tried seven or eight times, added it to my imaging train a couple times a year, attempting to get things working without success. Well, I went at it again last night, and you know what? It came together. I still have some weirdness to tinker with--to work out, but for the first time I wasn't guiding with a separate scope. I was guiding at the same focal length as the ZS61 using a pick-off prism that directs a portion of the field of view up into the guide camera. Here's the setup I used last night to dial-in the distance between the primary camera and guide camera, and then bring everything into focus. I ended up with some pretty cool shots, but my main purpose was to get Off-Axis Guiding (OAG) adjusted and working--and that was with me slewing around the sky to clear areas between banks of clouds to find some halfway interesting targets. In this setup I'm using my trusty ZWO ASI120MM-S for guiding, and the ZWO ASI071MC cooled color camera for the primary. The goal here is to be able to guide (track the motion of the earth against the star field to a very fine degree, and make small incremental adjustments to the EQ mount) so that I can take long exposures without worrying about the external guidescope issues I know all of you care deeply about, like field rotation and differential motion between a guide scope and imaging telescope. I have been able to take 20 minute exposures with a guidescope and camera, but the stars are not as sharp as I would like--think pressing down the button of your camera and holding the shutter open for 20 or 30 minutes and have everything in the field of view remain in sharp focus. That's essentially what the guiding system accomplishes, taking continuous images of the stars and feeding them to some pretty sophisticated software that controls the motion of the equatorial mount (that's the white z-shaped device with the black boxes on which the telescope is fastened and balanced).
This was the first chance I've had to put the ZWO ASI071MC through some serious long exposure tests on four very different targets, the region around Alnitak in Orion, the Rosette Nebula, Markarian's Chain, and M101. I ran most of these frames with unity gain (90 Gain, 20 Offset), and I built up a nice library of dark calibration frames in the afternoon, for 600, 300, and 120 second exposure times.
Rosette Nebular Region - Caldwell 49 (13 x 300 sec frames, 24 dark calibration frames) in the constellation Monoceros, about 5000 lightyears from earth. William Optics GT81 APO refractor, ZWO ASI071MC-C camera, iOptron CEM25P EQ mount.
A whole string of galaxies millions of lightyears from earth. Markarian's Chain in the Virgo Cluster, including M84, M86, the Eyes Galaxies (NGC 4435 and NGC 4438) and a few more galaxies and galaxy pairs. The Eyes are 52 million lightyears away! 30 x 120 sec frames, 20 dark frames, stacked in DSS. William Optics GT81 APO refractor, ZWO ASI071MC-C camera, iOptron CEM25P EQ mount.
Pinwheel Galaxy, M101, a spiral galaxy about 21 million lightyears from earth in the constellation Ursa Major (Big Dipper). (Light frames: 10 x 120 secs, 4 x 600 secs, 12 x 300 secs). William Optics GT81 APO refractor, ZWO ASI071MC-C camera, iOptron CEM25P EQ mount, INDI/KStars/Ekos.
Part of the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex that surrounds the blue supergiant Alnitak (large star in the center), including the Flame Nebula (NGC 2024), IC 434, Horsehead Nebula (Barnard 33), NGC 2023, IC 431, and more. About 1500 lightyears from earth. (22 x 300 sec frames, 24 dark frames). William Optics GT81 APO refractor, ZWO ASI071MC-C camera, iOptron CEM25P EQ mount. In case you're wondering, I'm pretty damned excited about this camera (ZWO ASI071MC), just going off what it can capture in faint nebulosity, and what I can bring out without much effort by stretching 22 stacked frames. I can't wait to see what I can capture in the summer when the big galaxies like Andromeda and Triangulum swing through.
Here's my setup for last night's astro session, with the William Optics GT81 APO refractor, ZWO ASI071MC-C primary camera, iOptron CEM25P EQ mount.